| || |
Foreign direct investments
From the beginning of political transformation in Poland foreign investments amounted to over 90 billion USD, including investments in Pomorskie Voivodship of about 3 billion (excluding foreign capital in banking and financial institutions). The Central Statistical Office announced that in 2004 there were 70 companies in the region with foreign capital which invested here over 1 million USD each, and which in total invested 1.7 billion USD. As for direct foreign investments, Pomorskie is ranked sixth in Poland with share of 5.4%. Companies with foreign capital employ around 53,000 people.
There are many well known American and Western European companies who have established their businesses and invested their money in Pomorskie. Examples of large greenfield investments are Philips Consumer Electronics Industries Poland Ltd. (at present Jabil Circuit Poland Ltd.) in Kwidzyn and Flextronics in Tczew. But an undisputable leader in terms of capital volume is American International Paper, which has invested over 320 million USD in a paper mill in Kwidzyn. The list of foreign investors is long, but some of the most significant are: Coca Cola HBC Polska Ltd. (food industry), Lufthansa Systems (remote management centre), Scania Kapena (electromechanical sector), Johann A. Krause Polska Ltd. which belongs to Thyssenkrupp AG (high technologies), Suruga Seiki (automation), Grupa Ergo Hestia (financial sector), Kappa Packaging Polska Ltd. (paper industry), Farm Frites Poland Co.(food industry), Dr.Oetker Polska Ltd. (food industry), Nordea Bank Polska Co.(financial sector), GE Money Bank Co.(financial sector), Auchan Polska (trade), Metro Group (trade), International Container Terminal Services Inc. (maritime transport), Deepwater Container Terminal Gdańsk Co.(sea transport), Skanska Co.(construction).
The biggest investment projects have American capital involvement. A good example is Flextronics in Tczew manufacturing electronic parts, or the already mentioned paper plant International Paper Kwidzyn Co., and also: Intel Technology Poland Ltd. in the IT sector, Cargill manufacturing animal fodder, and the GE Group in the financial services sector.
As for number of enterprises registered and value of invested capital, German capital is most apparent, mainly in the food industry, furniture manufacturing, retail trade and in the press publishing market. It is also involved in the insurance business of Ergo Hestia Group company.
The French in Pomerania invest mainly in a municipal water supply system, heating and electricity supply and retail trade.
The region is also a place of business activity of the Nordic financial group Nordea. Scandinavians have also invested in the automobile industry (Skania manufacturing buses) and in the construction sector (Skanska Co.– road renovation and building).
The Dutch are also highly visible in the region. Besides Philips CEI Poland (the present name is Jabil Circuit) in Kwidzyn, other Dutch companies that have established plants in the region are the packaging and cardboard manufacturer Expac and the food company Farm Frites Poland Co.
Chinese capital is represented by Hutchison International Port Holdings – container operator, Italian – by Promet, producing interior equipment as well as the clothing company Tino’s; UK capital – consortium Deepwater Container Terminal Gdańsk Co.in the port sector.
In recent times, the port industry has seemed to be very attractive for foreign investors. In 2003, the International Container Terminal Services Inc from the Philippines invested in the Baltic Container Terminal in Gdynia 42 million USD. The purchase of BCT by the Philippine company was assessed by “Jane’s Transport Finance Magazine” as the best transaction of the year. Next investors approached other terminals in the Gdynia port. Those are mainly international consortia. In October 2004 most of the shares in the cargo terminal in Gdynia’s Free Economic Zone (by the port) was purchased by the Chinese Hutchison International Port Holdings Ltd – a world-known container operator. The initiated investment is to dramatically increase growth dynamics of Gdynia port’s turnover in the years to come. Gdynia’s present turnover makes 40% of the total Polish trade cargo transported in containers.
The distribution and logistics centre is yet another investment project planned by the Gdynia Port Authority Co. The investors are offered a plot of 30 ha area located at the back of the Baltic Container Terminal – the biggest one in the southern Baltic Sea. The project is to secure further development of port services regarding container cargo and ro-ro. The offered plot is well equipped with infrastructure (roads, water, energy, telecommunication connections and other) and furthermore, it is located in the close neighbourhood of two terminals focusing on handling high value cargo. One of the terminals handles cargo on the Gdynia–Karlskrona connection, and the other the majority of Polish–Finnish trade. The plot itself and the facilities of the logistic centre may be leased for 20 years with the option to prolong the lease term, while the port authority is ready to negotiate its further involvement in the planned project.
In Gdańsk Port the biggest investment project of highest priority is the building of a deepwater container terminal of target capacity at the level of one million TEU. The investor is the British consortium Deepwater Container Terminal Gdańsk Co., which has already started the first stage of the investment aimed at construction of two facilities of total re-loading capacity 500,000 TEU, including one adapted to handling ro-ro vessels. In the direct neighbourhood of the terminal, a logistic and distribution centre is to be built, which will contribute to better attractiveness of the port and which will become an essential link in the logistic chain between the EU countries and Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine. It is an important piece of information for investors who plan their expansion in this direction. It is also worth mentioning that the plot designated for the centre (ca 134 ha), has now been zoned as a special economic zone pursuant to the Law of 20 October 1994 on special economic zones. Realisation of the planned port infrastructure investment project will shift the port’s profile from bulk cargo handling, mainly reloading of oil and coal, towards a universal port.
In November 2005 the Słupsk Special Economic Zone (SSEZ) signed an agreement with the Chinese EIW Industrial Development (part of Athletic Manufacturing), which has already built (investing ca 2.3 million EUR) a bicycle and motorbike manufacturing plant. The Chinese investor and other Chinese companies are now considering involvement in other parts of the SSEZ – in Włynkówko, Redzikowo and Debrzno.